What are diverticula? A diverticulum (if there are more
than one they are known as "diverticula") is a protrusion of the inner
lining of the intestine through the outer muscular coat to form a small
pouch with a narrow neck. The commonest site for diverticula to develop
is the lower left part of the colon. The presence of diverticula is often
referred to as diverticulosis.
DIVERTICULAE OF THE LARGE BOWEL HAS BEEN RECOGNIZED
DISEASE OF PATIENTS OVER FIFTY BUT WITH THE MORE FREQUENT USE OF COLONOSCOPY
AN INCREASING NUMBER OF CASES IN YOUNGER PATIENTS STARTING AT THIRTY-FIVE
HAVE BEEN FOUND. TERMS SUCH AS DIVERTICULITIS, DIVERTICULOSIS AND DIVERTICULAR
DISEASE MAY BE CONFUSING TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC AND MUST BE THOROUGHLY
EXPLAINED TO PATIENTS.
Diverticulitis is inflammation in and around a diverticulum. The cause
of diverticulitis is probably mechanical. The stagnation of nonsterile
inspissated fecal material, termed a fecalith, within the diverticulum
may compromise the blood supply to the thin-walled sac and render it susceptible
to invasion by colonic bacteria, causing inflammatory erosion of the mucosal
lining with perforation. This sequence of events can involve perforation
into the colonic wall, with the formation of an intramural abscess. However,
perforation usually occurs into the pericolic fat, leading to fibrinous
exudate, abscess formation, local adhesions, or peritonitis. Most patients
develop sealed-off abscesses or contained sinus tracts and fistulas. Fistulas
usually involve adjacent structures, such as the bowel, urinary bladder,
vagina, and anterior abdominal wall. Other potential complications include
bowel obstruction and peritonitis.
|A high-fiber diet is recommended. The American Dietetic Association
recommends 20 to 35 grams of fiber each day.
DIVERTICULAR DISEASE OF THE COLON IS THE DISEASE PROCESS
CAUSED BY DIVERTICULAE. THIS AILMENT HAS BEEN RELATED TO THE POOR INGESTION
OF FIBER IN A PATIENTS DIET. IT IS MORE COMMON IN DEVELOPED NATIONS, BUT
ITS INCIDENCE IS VERY MUCH ON THE RISE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES SUCH AS
HERE IN EL SALVADOR, WHERE THE DIETARY HABITS ARE BEING AMERICANIZED,
AS CAN BE OBSERVED BY THE INCREASING NUMBER OF INTERNATIONAL FAST FOOD
CHAINS OPENING THEIR FRANCHISES. ESPECIALLY YOUNG PEOPLE PREFER MODERN
FAST FOOD OVER MORE TRADITIONAL MEALS.
A diet low in fiber promotes constipation and straining at bowel movements
that may worsen diverticulosis
Fortunately, most diverticula cause no symptoms and require
no treatment. complications do occur and can be serious. These
may include abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, and diverticulitis.
Abdominal Pain Most diverticular pouches are painless.
But over time, spasms can occur and individuals may experience intermittent
dull or crampy pain in the left lower abdomen. This pain is usually associated
with a change in bowel habit. When diverticulosis is far advanced, the
lower colon may become narrowed and distorted. When this occurs, there
may be thin or pellet-shaped stools, persistent bouts of constipation,
and an occasional rush of diarrhea.
Rectal Bleeding bleeding occurs
from a ruptured blood vessel in one of the pouches. This may produce a
gush of red blood from the rectum or maroon-colored stools. The bleeding
is usually self-limited and stops on its own, but requires careful evaluation
and usually a brief hospitalization. Occasionally, emergency surgery is
necessary to stop the loss of blood.
Diverticulitis is a complication of diverticulosis.
The colon is home to many beneficial bacteria - helpful as long as they
stay within the colon. Sometimes, one of the diverticular pouches becomes
thin and ruptures allowing bacteria normally contained inside the colon
to seep out through the wall and cause infection on the outside of the
colon. When this occurs, it is called diverticulitis. Diverticulitis can
be mild with only slight discomfort in the left lower abdomen - or it
can be extreme with abscess formation, severe tenderness and fever. en
the patient needs an emergency surgery The surgeon opens the abdomen and
removes the affected part of the colon. The remaining sections of the
colon are rejoined. This type of surgery, called colon resection, aims
to keep attacks from coming back and to prevent complications. The doctor
may also recommend surgery for complications of a fistula or intestinal
|Mortality/Morbidity: Mortality and morbidity are
related to complications of diverticulosis, which are mainly diverticulitis
and lower GI bleeding. These occur in 10-20% of patients with diverticulosis
during their lifetime.
Clinical historical features of inflammatory disease include the following:
Abdominal pain - Occurs mostly in the left lower quadrant and tends
to be steady, severe, and deep
History of fever suggestive of diverticulitis
Previous episodes of dull, colicky, and diffuse abdominal pain accompanied
with flatulence, distention, and change in bowel habits (diverticulosis)
Altered bowel habits including diarrhea, increased constipation, and
tenesmus (physician may note obstipation when treating a complicating
Nausea and vomiting
Dysuria, pyuria, and urinary frequency if bladder or ureter are irritated
History of pneumaturia or recurrent urinary tract infections (colovesicular
Feculent vaginal discharge (fistulas with the uterus or vagina)
Severe and generalized abdominal pain (diffuse peritonitis)
Back or lower extremity pain (perforation)
Establish history of hemorrhagic disease, including the following:
Lower GI bleeding from diverticulosis occurs in the form of bright
red-colored or wine-colored stools.
Onset of bleeding typically is sudden, painless, and accompanied by
an urge to defecate.
Amount of bleeding typically is massive and tends to stop spontaneously.
Ascertain a previous history of gastric or duodenal ulcers, liver
disease, or GI bleeding.
Discomfort and pain upon defecation indicate hemorrhoids or anal fissures.
History of weight loss and mucus in the stools indicates inflammatory
Establish list of medications used (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
drugs [NSAIDs], steroids) and of alcohol abuse.
Establish bleeding tendencies.
|Sex: Male-to-female ratio is equal.
|Endoscopic Image of diverticulae, It observed some
holes that are the diverticulae, Please click on the image to download
the video clip, wait to complete the download and press Alt and Enter
to be apreciated in full screen.
Endoscopic Image of diverticula with a peri-diverticular fibrinoide exudade
which means that are diverticulitis.
Endoscopic image of a diverticula that which emerges dark blood, It caused
Same diverticula as above, A close out it observed a blood clot
in the diverticula hole.
Same case as above.
Muscular hypertrofia due to diverticular disease
redness is observed Scattered Patches of dark erythematous mucosa
are displayed in the image, however Small red fold in diverticular disease
are common and
related to strong muscular contractions associated with the high pressure
segment in the sigmoid.