Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
This frequent ailment is consequence of the abnormal passage of stomach
contents into the esophagus. It is one of the most common afflictions
seen in daily gastro-intestinal practice.
|Heartburn results from gastroesophageal reflux, a condition in which
stomach acids back up into your esophagus. You feel a burning pain
behind your breastbone, often accompanied by a sour taste and the
sensation of food coming back into your mouth.
Normally, acid is trapped in your stomach by a circular band of
muscle between the esophagus and stomach called a sphincter. The
sphincter remains closed except when you swallow. If the sphincter
relaxes abnormally or weakens, stomach acid tends to back up, causing
symptoms of heartburn.
Gastro-esophageal reflux is a disorder of the
motility of the g.i.tract, the motility being described as the interaction
of normal bowel movements of the digestive tract. In gastro-esophageal
reflux the sphincter between the two aforementioned organs is
adversely affected, its tone being diminished which leads to incompetency
and incomplete closure. This leads to the retrograde passage of gastric
acid and pepsin into the esophagus with ensuing irritation of the mucosa
This condition gives origin to a wide variety of symptoms, which range
from asymptomatic states to severe retro-sternal pain, which may mimic
life threatening cardiovascular disease. Other symptoms include retro-sternal
burning or pain.
Heartburn is virtually always due to reflux of acidic
gastric contents into the esophagus. Transient lower esophageal sphincter
relaxations (tLESRs) often underlie both normal and pathological reflux.
In healthy individuals, gravity and peristalsis rapidly clear refluxate,
whereas swallowed saliva neutralizes remaining adherent esophageal acid.
Heartburn occurs when these protective mechanisms and/or endogenous mucosal
defenses are impaired. Other etiologic factors include an increased frequency
of inappropriate tLESRs and prolonged acid contact time.
Endoscopic Image of a ulcer caused by a gastroesophageal reflux,
retroflex maneuver. For more endoscopic details please download the video
clip by clicking
on the image, wait to the time of download and press Alt and Enter to
in full screen.
Complications of GERD.
Flexible Endoscopic Suturing
A new device, Flexible endoscopic Suturing Device. Endoscopic
Anti-Reflux Procedure, Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a result
of exposure of the lining of the esophagus to the contents of the stomach,
which is usually acidic in nature. Medical therapy of GERD usually consists
of medications that reduce acid secretion or improve gastric emptying
and have been shown to be effective in the majority of patients. Patients
who do not respond or are unable to tolerate medical therapy may be candidates
for anti-reflux procedures that can be performed either by surgery or
T he ESD Flexible Endoscopic Suturing device
Facilitating beneficial therapeutic intervention with minimal discomfort,
this supple, flexible product enables the closure of wound sites that
would otherwise be inaccessible without violating the integrity of the
patient's digestive tract, skin, or other protective structures. The device
is suited for use on sites within 70 cm of the mouth or anus, and does
not require general anaesthesia or leave painful secondary wounds. Enabling
novel procedures, the ESD device also may reduce the need for postoperative
patient medication and speeds the conversion of existing surgical procedures
to minimally invasive techniques.
The ESD Flexible Endoscopic Suturing device. It uses the same principal
of tightening the junction between the esophagus and the stomach by the
placement of sutures. This device has been approved by the FDA and is
being studied for the treatment of GERD.
|This picture displays the new device, The ESD Flexible Endoscopic
|More details download the video clip.
|Endoscopic Sequence 1 of 11.
FLEXIBLE ENDOSCOPIC SUTURING DEVICE
Endoscopic Suturing due to chronic gastroesophageal reflux The image
and the video display a retroflexed hiatal hernia.
35 year-old male, who has been medical record of suffering refracting
Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Since 4 years.
For more endoscopic details download
the complete sequence of video clips by clicking on the endoscopic
|Endoscopic Sequence 2 of 11.
Suturing System and standard video endoscopy, sutures are
placed in the upper part of the stomach at or just below the LES.
Two stitches can be placed and tied together to create a pleat near
the LES and treat symptomatic reflux.
The image and the video clip display a flexible suturing device which
has been passed through the external
accessory channel, with a friction-fit adapter and tube guide, provides
a pathway for the flexible endoscopic
For more endoscopic details download
the video clip by clicking on the image.
|Endoscopic Sequence 3 of 11.
The ESD Flexible Endoscopic Suturing device. It uses the same principal
of tightening the junction between the esophagus and the stomach by
the placement of sutures. This device has been approved by the FDA
and is being studied for the treatment of GERD. The image and the
video display the step of sucking
enough tissue (mucosa, sub mucosa and muscularis). The needle is then
fired into the sucked tissue.
We applied the first suture with the first needle and at the same
time we removed the valve of suction and in this way it free the tissue
from the pincer and we prepared the field for the second suture which
is one centimeter away from the first one.
For more endoscopic details download
the video clip by clicking on the image
| Endoscopic Sequence 4 of 11.
The image and the video clip display to loosen the tissues,
certain maneuver are observed we prepared the second suture one
centimeter away from the first one. In the image observed the process
after the tissue which we deliver one suture, with this device.
We observed the threads through the cardias and then, we applied
the second suture to one centimeter away from the first one. We
look the 4 threads that convert to
two with applied traction that is direct out and both tissues gathered.
|Endoscopic Sequence 5 of 11.
We prepared the second suture one centimeter away from the first one.
In the image observed the process after the tissue which we deliver
one suture, with this device. We observed the threads through the
cardias and then, we applied the second suture to one centimeter away
from the first one.
|Endoscopic Sequence 6 of 11.
the 4 threads that convert to two with applied traction that is
direct out and both tissues gathered
| Endoscopic Sequence 7 of 11.
image and the video displaying both threads that were observed as
four this is becaouse they have been
traccioned outwards. In the image show two threads that previously
were four, but after we applied outside traction and the cardia's
tissue is suture and close to each other the next step is to tie
between the sutures and we use other special pince wich we thread
the needle in this pincer with a titanium's clip. And we gaze the
other flexible pince wich has the threads attach with a titanium's
| Endoscopic Sequence 8 of 11.
next step is to perform the knot, The titanium knot mechanically
fastens suture together and
cuts away excess suture. And those threads position close to the
mouth and out from
the patient are introducing to other special pince which is
flexible to attach a titanium's clip.
| Endoscopic Sequence 9 of 11.
more endoscopic details download the video clip by
clicking on the endoscopic images.
| Endoscopic Sequence 10 of 11
In this step this clamp is withdrawn, the hole of the
clamp is observed where the titanium knot is applied and
the threads are cut, also this clamp is equipped to cut threads.
| Endoscopic Sequence 11 of 11.
The knot is observed, the threads and the titanium clip The first
stich is finish of this form increase the pressure of the inferior
gastroesophageal sphincter, this procedure is simple, two to four
stitches are required according to the size of the hiatal hernia.
This endoscopic procedure is practical, safe and mainly the
because the patient benefits due the gastroesophageal reflux disappears.
51 year-old male with hiatus
hernia and heart burning since 3 years.
An endoscopic gastroplicature
was performed. The treatment is delivered via an endoscope.
final status from a Endoscopic
Anti-Reflux Procedure was archived that is done on an outpatient
basis patient go home the same day.
|24 year-old female who has been
suffered of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) since 8
years even with PPI.
She has incompetence of the inferior gastroesophageal sphincter.
|Another image of the inferior gastroesophagic
A flexible device with treads is
shown, the tip of flexible endoscopic (flexible Sew-Right
|The clamp with threads is suctioning the gastroesophageal
|The image and the video clip display the traction
by the treads that tied the tissues.
|The gastroplication has been completed.
Plication techniques create a mechanical barrier to reflux
through apposition of 2 mucosal surfaces at the
gastroesophageal junction or in the cardia.
|Final statust of the endoscopic gastroplicature.
Patient relief the symptoms.
| Final statust of the endoscopic gastroplicature.
Patient relief the symptoms.
Endoscopic view of reflux esophagitis.
Reflux Esophagitis, radial ulcers and hiatus
Many patients with GERD have a normal esophagus on
endoscopy. The first sign of esophageal damage may be
erythema. Appearance of erosions indicates more severe
disease. Deep esophageal ulcers can occur in addition to
the more common shallow erosions. As its severity
increases, esophagitis can lead to obstruction through
stricture formation. Severe esophagitis can also lead to
cancer through the development of a columnar lining
known as Barrett's esophagus.
Severe esophagitis is appreciated by the presence
of several, confluent erosions and whitish exudate
on the mucosa. A hiatal hernia is observed .
Severe reflux esophagitis, in retroflexion view.
An ulcerated cardias is observed.
|Barrett's esophagus is usually discovered during
endoscopic examinations of middle-aged and older adults whose mean
age at the time of diagnosis is approximately 55 years . Although
Barrett's esophagus can affect children, it rarely occurs before the
age of five . This observation supports the contention that Barrett's
esophagus is an acquired condition, not a congenital one. Barrett's
esophagus appears to be uncommon in blacks and Asians. The prevalence
in Hispanics is similar to Caucasians.
The columnar metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus causes no symptoms.
Thus, most patients are seen initially for symptoms of the associated
GERD such as heartburn, regurgitation, and dysphagia..
|Barrett's esophagus is a precancerous condition of the esophagus
that typically affects white males over 50 years although others may
also have this condition. The incidence of the type of cancer associated
with Barrett's esophagus has recently dramatically increased.
|GERD associated with Barrett's esophagus frequently
is complicated by esophageal ulceration, stricture, and hemorrhage
Some studies have suggested that patients with a peptic stricture
have a higher prevalence of Barrett's esophagus than those without
strictures. This relationship is not surprising since both peptic
stricture and Barrett's esophagus are associated with more severe
GERD. However, this association has been challenged in study of patients
referred for endoscopy for GERD in whom the prevalence of intestinal
metaplasia was the same in patients with and without strictures.
|DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA There has been intense controversy
regarding the diagnostic criteria for Barrett's esophagus. The deceptively
simple, conceptual definition of the disorder as a condition in which
columnar epithelium replaces squamous epithelium in the distal esophagus
does not translate easily into practical diagnostic criteria, primarily
because there are no reproducible landmarks that clearly delimit the
end of the esophagus. The esophagogastric junction has been defined
differently by anatomists, radiologists, physiologists, and endoscopists,
and the location of the junction identified by these different criteria
may vary by several centimeters or more
|Columnar epithelium, with its reddish color and velvet-like texture,
can be distinguished readily from the pale, glossy squamous epithelium
of the esophagus on endoscopic examination. It can appear as tongues
extending from the squamocolumnar junction, continuous areas extending
into the distal esophagus, or discrete islands within normal appearing
squamous mucosa. Heterotopic gastric mucosa with a similar appearance
can be seen on occasion in the proximal 3 cm of the esophagus, frequently
immediately below the upper esophageal sphincter (an "inlet patch").
The majority of such cases are clinically insignificant, although
rare complications (tracheoesophageal fistula, an increased risk of
peptic esophagitis from biopsies obtained near the patch, adenocarcinoma
arising from within the patch, and cervical webs and rings) have been
Three different terms have been used to describe the presence of
intestinal metaplasia in the esophagus:
Long segment Barrett's esophagus
Short segment Barrett's esophagus
Junctional intestinal metaplasia
These definitions are based upon two anatomic landmarks seen on
endoscopy: the squamocolumnar junction, and the esophagogastric
The squamocolumnar junction is the border between the squamous
lined epithelium of the esophagus and the columnar epithelium of
the stomach (also referred to as the "Z line").
The esophagogastric junction is the border between the esophagus
and the stomach. It is usually recognized during endoscopy by appreciation
of where the proximal gastric folds end and the tubular esophagus
begins. The Z line is normally located within 2 cm of the proximal
edge of the gastric folds. The length of intestinal metaplasia between
the esophagogastric junction and the squamocolumnar junction represents
the extent of Barrett's esophagus. However, recognition of these
landmarks can be difficult, particularly in patients who have hiatal
hernia, which is usually present in patients with Barrett's esophagus.
Furthermore, intestinal metaplasia may not always be apparent on
endoscopy. In one study, the positive predictive value of endoscopy
for the presence of intestinal metaplasia was only 34 percent; correct
diagnosis was more likely in patients with long segment Barrett's
Long segment Initial investigations of Barrett's
esophagus established arbitrary criteria for the extent of esophageal
columnar lining necessary to include patients in studies. Published
diagnostic criteria varied substantially, ranging from as few as
2 cm to as many as 5 cm of columnar lined esophagus. Many authorities
have now settled on 3 cm as the cutoff for long segment Barrett's.
These arbitrary criteria, designed specifically by investigators
for use in clinical trials, were adopted into clinical practice.
By adhering to these diagnostic criteria, clinicians limited the
problem of false-positive diagnoses, but failed to recognize short
segments of metaplastic epithelium in the distal esophagus.
Short segment Diagnostic difficulties arise in
patients who have short segments of columnar epithelium that appear
to be confined to the distal esophagus. Without precise landmarks
for the esophagogastric junction, it can be difficult to determine
whether these short segments of columnar epithelium line the distal
esophagus or whether they line a tubular segment of the gastric
cardia that the endoscopist has mistakenly identified as esophagus.
Some authorities have proposed that the term "short-segment
Barrett's esophagus" should be used in patients who have less
than 2 to 3 cm of specialized intestinal metaplasia lining the distal
Junctional intestinal metaplasia To further complicate
matters, intestinal metaplasia can exist below the squamocolumnar
conjunction. When the esophagogastric junction and the squamocolumnar
junction are in the same location it is referred to as specialized
intestinal metaplasia of the squamocolumnar junction or junctional
specialized columnar epithelium. Specialized intestinal metaplasia
of the squamocolumnar junction has been linked to adenocarcinoma
of the gastric cardia and distal esophagus. However, its relationship
to GERD is uncertain.
To overcome these problems with definitions, some authorities have
proposed that the diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus should be based
solely upon the presence of specialized intestinal metaplasia, not
upon any specific extent of esophageal columnar lining. Others have
suggested that the term Barrett's esophagus should be eliminated
altogether, and that the condition should be called simply "columnar-lined
esophagus. Unfortunately, even these approaches have not eliminated
A major consideration with defining Barrett's esophagus solely
by the presence of specialized intestinal metaplasia relates to
the high frequency with which short segments can be found in the
distal esophagus and its uncertain relationship to malignant transformation
and reflux. In one report, for example, short, inconspicuous segments
of intestinal-type epithelium were found in the region of the esophagogastric
junction in approximately 20 percent of patients in a general endoscopy
unit who underwent protocol biopsies, many of whom had no signs
or symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). These observations
have been confirmed by a number of subsequent reports.
Most studies on Barrett's esophagus have exclusively included patients
with the endoscopically-obvious condition in which the distal esophagus
is lined extensively by metaplastic, intestinal-type epithelium.
Until the debate over terminology is resolved, the term Barrett's
esophagus should be used to refer to such patients.
Differences between long and short segment Barrett's — As
discussed above, the prevalence of short segment is much higher
than long segment Barrett's esophagus. Both conditions are diagnosed
most frequently in patients between the ages of 55 and 65 and are
predominantly seen in male Caucasians. Patients with junctional
intestinal metaplasia are a possible exception; an equal gender
distribution has been reported in this group of patients.
These observations were illustrated in a study that included 889
patients undergoing upper endoscopy who had protocol biopsies obtained
at the esophagogastric junction. The overall prevalence of specialized
intestinal metaplasia was 13.2 percent with the following distribution:
Long-segment — 1.6 percent
Short segment — 6.4 percent
Intestinal metaplasia of the esophagogastric junction —
Patients with long and short segment Barrett's were predominantly
male, white smokers. Patients with short segment Barrett's had a
shorter history of heartburn. In contrast, those with intestinal
metaplasia of the esophagogastric junction had a similar gender
distribution and were more likely to be infected by Helicobacter
The degree and mechanism of acid exposure in patients with short
and long segment Barrett's esophagus suggest that patients who develop
long segments Barrett's were predisposed to more severe reflux.
Patients with long segment Barrett's tend to have upright and
supine reflux in contrast to those with short segment Barrett's
who have predominantly upright reflux.
Proximal esophageal acid exposure is more common in patients with
long segment Barrett's.
Compared to patients with long segment Barrett's, those with short
segments tend to have higher LES pressures and increased distal
esophageal peristaltic amplitudes.
Endoscopic Image of Barrett's
When to use endoscopy.
|The aim of endoscopic screening and surveillance is to both
identify Barrett's esophagus and detect early neoplastic changes,
defined as dysplasia. The goal of such monitoring is to improve
early recognition of invasive esophageal cancer, presumably
at a curable stage.
Before endoscopic and biopsy screening is undertaken in a
patient with GERD, symptoms should be treated and the patient
should be in symptomatic remission. The three main reasons
for this approach are as follows:
Endoscopic examination is a screening tool for detection
of Barrett's esophagus and not GERD.
One third to one half of patients who have untreated symptoms
of GERD have erosive esophagitis, which makes diagnosis of
underlying Barrett's epithelium challenging. Often these patients
need to be treated with high-dose proton pump inhibitor therapy
for 8 weeks, followed by repeat endoscopy.
If Barrett's esophagus is suspected in patients who have active
esophagitis, biopsies may be inaccurate because of uncertainty
about whether the cause of reactive cellular changes is inflammation
or true dysplasia.
|Once inflammation related to GERD is controlled and endoscopic
diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus is established, current guidelines
recommend obtaining four-quadrant jumbo biopsies at 2-cm intervals.
The rationale for comprehensive surveillance stems from observations
that dysplasia may be focal and that high-grade dysplasia and
early carcinoma in Barrett's esophagus can occur in the absence
of endoscopic abnormalities.
Dysplasia is a pathologic diagnosis and is graded as negative,
indefinite, positive for low-grade or high-grade changes,
or characteristic of intramucosal carcinoma. If a biopsy specimen
is labeled negative for dysplasia, the glandular architecture
is intact and shows a normal cellular nuclear-to-cytoplasmic
ratio. Biopsy samples labeled indefinite for dysplasia include
those in which the architecture is moderately distorted but
nuclear abnormalities are less marked than with dysplasia.
Features such as nuclear stratification, diminished mucus
production, or increased cytoplasmic basophilia may be present.
The indefinite category is reserved for cases in which changes
are too marked to be classified as negative but insufficient
for diagnosis of dysplasia.
The histologic diagnosis of low- or high-grade dysplasia
is based on the severity of architectural distortion and cytologic
criteria that reflect neoplastic transformation of the columnar
epithelium. Abnormalities include branched, crowded, and irregularly
shaped glands with marked variation in nuclear features, increased
nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio, increased mitoses, and hyperchromatism..
Intramucosal adenocarcinoma is defined histologically as
carcinoma that has moved through the basement membrane into
the lamina propria mucosae but has not invaded the submucosa.
Generally, biopsies--even jumbo biopsies--are not deep enough
to rule out submucosal invasion, and further staging, usually
with endoscopic ultrasound, is required.
The direct costs of surveillance can be substantial. Moreover,
the appropriate interval of surveillance is still controversial.
Generally, surveillance every 2 to 3 years is considered adequate
for patients who have no evidence of dysplasia . When low-grade
dysplasia is present, the interval is shortened to every 6
months for 1 year, followed by annual surveillance. If high-grade
dysplasia is detected on biopsy, the findings should be confirmed
by an expert histopathologist. When the confirmation is consistent
with high-grade dysplasia, surveillance every 3 months is
appropriate if esophageal resection is declined by the patient
or is not performed because of other medical considerations.
Treatment of Barrett's Esophagus.
|Best Treatment is Prevention
In most cases, Barrett's esophagus cannot be treated effectively.
Treatment, as such, starts with controlling GERD and preventing
Barrett's from developing. Drugs that block production of acid
and relieve irritated tissue are frequently prescribed. It is
also beneficial to make lifestyle changes and take self-care
steps. These include:
Getting more exercise
Avoiding foods that aggravate heartburn
Elevating the head of the bed to prevent reflux during sleep
|Proton pump inhibitors are now considered the cornerstone
of therapy for symptomatic GERD. However, there is little data
to support the theory that use of proton pump inhibitors, even
in high doses, causes clinically significant regression of Barrett's
epithelium. Moreover, it is less clear whether asymptomatic
patients should be treated with proton pump inhibitors if Barrett's
esophagus is diagnosed incidentally. Currently, there is a paucity
of data to suggest that normalization of acid exposure decreases
the risk of dysplasia and adenocarcinoma.
|Antireflux surgery also alleviates the symptoms of GERD, but
long-term follow-up studies have not demonstrated a significant
regression of Barrett's esophagus after surgery. Certainly,
complete regression is uncommon, and even "partial"
regression, referring to a decrease in the length of the Barrett's
esophagus segment, may be misleading .. Other studies have suggested
that antireflux surgery was associated with a reduced risk of
dysplasia. However, this may have been due to sampling error
and the transient nature of dysplasia, especially low-grade
Other experimental strategies for eliminating Barrett's esophagus,
such as thermal ablation and photodynamic therapy are based
on the principle that long-term regression may require reinjury
of the metaplastic epithelium, followed by regeneration of normal
squamous epithelium. Thermal ablation using multipolar electrocoagulation,
argon plasma coagulation, and laser therapy ablation are all
feasible in the sense that they are minimally invasive and cause
less morbidity and mortality than surgery. Nevertheless, although
these techniques may initially eliminate much or all of the
Barrett's epithelium, it appears that residual intestinal metaplasia
may remain under the new squamous epithelium. Moreover, the
value of these procedures in patients who have low- or high-grade
dysplasia is unclear
Surveillance for Dysplasia and
|Periodic endoscopic examinations to look for early warning
signs of cancer are generally recommended for people who have
Barrett's esophagus. This approach is called surveillance. When
people who have Barrett's esophagus develop cancer, the process
seems to go through an intermediate stage in which cancer cells
appear in the Barrett's tissue. This condition is called dysplasia
and can be seen only in biopsies with a microscope. The process
is patchy and cannot be seen directly through the endoscope,
so multiple biopsies must be taken. Even then, it can be missed.
The process of change from Barrett's to cancer seems to happen
only in a few patients, less than 1 percent per year, and
over a relatively long period of time. Most physicians recommend
that patients with Barrett's esophagus undergo periodic surveillance
endoscopy to have biopsies. The recommended interval between
endoscopies varies depending on specific circumstances, and
the ideal interval has not been determined.
|If a person with Barrett's esophagus is found to have dysplasia
or cancer, the doctor will usually recommend surgery if the
person is strong enough and has a good chance of being cured.
The type of surgery may vary, but it usually involves removing
most of the esophagus and pulling the stomach up into the chest
to attach it to what remains of the esophagus. Many patients
with Barrett's esophagus are elderly and have many other medical
problems that make surgery unwise; in these patients, other
approaches to treating dysplasia are being investigated.
Barrett's Esophagus and Cancer of the
| The presence of Barrett's esophagus is associated
with increased risk of developing an invasive cancer (adenocarcinoma).
Columnar epithelial dysplasia as seen in Barrett's esophagus is a
premalignant lesion for adenocarcinoma. Adenocarcinoma does not develop
"out of the blue". Instead, adenocarcinoma in Barrett's
esophagus develops in a sequence of changes, from nondysplastic (metaplastic)
columnar epithelium, through low-grade and then high-grade dysplasia
(preancerous change detected under the microscope) and finally invasive
cancer. This makes early detection and early treatment a possibility.
Patients with Barrett's esophagus have a 30- to 100-fold increased
risk of the development of esophageal cancer in comparison with the
general population. The disease is most common in white males.
|Background: Since the 1950s, several investigators have published
reports of patients with dysphagia who had associated lower esophageal
ringlike constrictions, but each investigator had a different opinion
as to the cause and nature of these rings. In 1953, Ingelfinger and
Kramer believed that these rings occurred as a result of a contraction
by an overactive band of esophageal muscle; however, Schatzki and
Gary believed that these rings were fixed and not contractile. Some
of this controversy may be related to the confusion of categorizing
muscular and mucosal rings under the same entity, as concluded by
Goyal et al.
Two rings have been identified in the distal esophagus. The muscular
ring, or A ring, is a thickened symmetric band of muscle that forms
the upper border of the esophageal vestibule and is located approximately
2 cm above the gastroesophageal junction. The A ring is rare; furthermore,
it is even more rarely associated with dysphagia. On the other hand,
the mucosal ring, or B ring, is quite common and is the subject
of discussion in this article. The B ring is a diaphragmlike thin
mucosal ring usually located at the squamocolumnar junction; it
may be symptomatic or asymptomatic, depending on the luminal diameter.
The pathogenesis is not clear, and patients typically present with
intermittent nonprogressive dysphagia for solids. Fortunately, most
patients respond well to initial and repeat dilatation therapy.
A small number of patients may have stubborn rings that require
more aggressive endoscopic or surgical intervention.
|Pathophysiology: The pathogenesis of Schatzki rings
is not clear, and at least 4 hypotheses have been proposed. These
hypotheses may not be mutually exclusive. Proposed hypotheses are
The ring is a pleat of redundant mucosa that forms when the esophagus
shortens transiently or permanently for unknown reasons.
The ring is congenital in origin.
The ring is actually a short peptic stricture occurring as a consequence
of gastroesophageal reflux disease.
The ring is a consequence of pill-induced esophagitis.
Endoscopic image of Schatzki ring.
Endoscopic image of Schatzki ring retroflexed
Endoscopic image of Schatzki ring.
Endoscopic image of Schatzki ring with
|To observe multiple images and video clips
of Endoscopy see our on-line atlas.
|Where you can find more than 1100 video clips of hi-res
of our experience with the most varied subjects of the gastrointestinal