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Julio Alejandro Murra-Saca MD.
Gastroenterologist, Coloproctologist
Tel : (503) 226-3131, (503) 225-3087, Celular (503) 887-2507

Edificio Centro Scan, Colonia Médica, San Salvador, El Salvador.


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Notes on Cyber Gastroenterology


A cancer is an uncontrolled proliferation of cells. In some the rate is fast; in others, slow; but in all cancers the cells never stop dividing. This distinguishes cancers - malign tumors or malignancies - from benign growths like moles where their cells eventually stop dividing.
Cancers are clones. No matter how many trillions of cells are present in the cancer, they are all descended from a single ancestral cell.
Cancers begin as a primary tumor. At some point, however, cells break away from the primary tumor and - traveling in blood and lymph - establish metastases in other locations of the body. Metastasis is what usually kills the patient.

Cancer is a much feared disease that is responsible for millions of deaths worldwide.

Throughout history, the incidence of most types of cancer is steadily on the rise, due to a diversity of factors, such as a changing lifestyle of many human beings, increasing environmental contamination or increasing exposure to ionizing radiation.
How does a cancer develop? In most cases the evolution of a cancer is a silent development that goes unnoticed. In the G.I. tract a small polyp may grow over many years until it degenerates and becomes cancerous
For more endoscopic details please click on the image  to  download the video clip Large villous adenoma.
Click on the image to download the video clip.

Wait to be downloaded complete and press Alt and enter to appreciate in full screen.

As a matter of fact polyps that have reached a 2 cm diameter are considered pre'cancerous. Larger villous adenomas will degenerate into cancer in 40 % of cases. These polyps may be removed by polypectomy, an endoscopic procedure which makes open surgery unnecessary.

For more endoscopic details please click on the image  to  download the video clip Click on the image to download the video clip.

Wait to be downloaded complete and press Alt and enter to appreciate in full screen.

Polypectomy of a rectal polyp, an endoscopic procedure which makes open surgery unnecessary.

Images showing the development of a cancer:

Colon cancer, like all cancers, develops silently and proves to be in an advanced state when clinical symptoms become apparent. Unfortunately, most people do not undergo periodic medical check-ups, in which these cancers could be detected in their early stages. It cannot be emphasized too much that many prestigious medical societies recommend a so-called Total Colon Examination (TCE) for everybody, starting at the age of fifty. TCE includes colonoscopy ), which should be repeated at least every three years. If theses recommendations were heeded by everyone, mortality from colon cancer would sharply decline.

For more endoscopic details please download the video clip by clicking on the image
Rectal Carcinoma that originates from a rectal polyp
"The theory adenoma carcinoma" Its erly dectection
has become a gold for the gastroenterologist.
Please click on the image to download the video clip.

In this area of the g.i. tract a simple digital rectal examination will suffice to detect these type of lesions. Most cancers are able to progress because most human beings will not give their health and preventive medicine enough importance. If certain diagnostic exams were performed on a strict, pre-determined schedulde in programs similar to the widespread vaccinations given to young children, cancer would be a much less lethal disease.
Recommended Vaccinations for Children:

Poliomyelitis, DPT, Varicella, Hepatitis A & B, Meningitis, etc.

Recommended Diagnostic Medical Exams for Adults:
Mammography , yearly over the age of forty (asymptomatic women)
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA Test),
Digital Rectal Examination and Prostate Ultrasound, yearly, in asymptomatic men over fifty.
Upper G.I. tract endoscopy, every 3 years.
Colonoscopy, every four years (every 3 years over the age of fifty)
Pap smear of the Cervix, yearly for asymptomatic women.
Cardiac Stress Test.
It is important to point out that a digital rectal examination is an important part of the clinical examination and any medical check-up is incomplete without it. A rectal exam may discover a rectal carcinoma in its initial stage, before it becomes incurable. An undetected rectal carcinoma will often lead to surgical resection of the rectum and the necessity of a permanenet colostomy, with all the inconveniences that are associated with it.



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