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  • Julio Alejandro Murra Saca, MD

  • Tel: (503) 2226-3131, 2225-3087, 2530-3334 al 37
    Edificio Centro Scan, Colonia Médica

  • San Salvador, El Salvador


An upper endoscopy is a procedure used to visually examine your upper digestive system with a tiny camera on the end of a long, flexible tube. A specialist in diseases of the digestive system (gastroenterologist) uses endoscopy to diagnose and, sometimes, treat conditions that affect the esophagus, stomach and beginning of the small intestine (duodenum). The medical term for an upper endoscopy is esophagogastroduodenoscopy. An upper endoscopy may be done in your doctor's office, an outpatient surgery center or a hospital.

An upper endoscopy, often referred to as endoscopy, EGD, or esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy, is a procedure that allows a physician to directly examine the upper part of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which includes the esophagus , the stomach, and the duodenum (the first section of the small intestine).


The most common reasons for upper endoscopy include:

Unexplained discomfort in the upper abdomen.
GERD or gastroesophageal reflux disease (often called heartburn). (See "Patient information: Acid reflux (gastroesophageal reflux disease) in adults (Beyond the Basics)".)
Persistent nausea and vomiting.
Upper GI bleeding (vomiting blood or blood found in the stool that originated from the upper part of the GI tract). Bleeding can be treated during the endoscopy.
Difficulty swallowing; food/liquids getting stuck in the esophagus during swallowing. This may be caused by a narrowing (stricture) or tumor or because the esophagus is not contracting properly. If there is a stricture, it can often be dilated with special balloons or dilation tubes during the endoscopy.
Abnormal or unclear findings on an upper GI x-ray, CT scan, or MRI.
Removal of a foreign body (a swallowed object).
To check healing or progress on previously found polyps (growths), tumors, or ulcers.

Endoscopy of Upper GI Tract

Endoscopy of Severe Acute Gastritis

Gastric Ulcers Overture

The Untold History of The Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Part 2 (2/6)

The Untold History of The Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Part 5 (5/6)

Our endoscopy report, we provide our patients, the endoscopic report with digital photographs as well as all Digital DVD

Programas de TV Endoscopia realizada a Luciana Sandoval Canal 12 parte 1 y 2

The High Resolution Video Endoscopy should be performed as a routine examination every three years to every person passing thirty years searching and prevention of gastric cancer with or without symptoms.

Endoscopy has had in recent years a breakthrough in the diagnosis and treatment of digestive diseases. Allows accurately diagnose the presence of ulcers, tumor lesions benign and malignant lesions causing internal bleeding, etc.., Possible to take biopsies and performing various therapeutic techniques.

Radial Endosonography Image

Endosonography Radial Endoscopic Ultrasound EUS. Gastric Body

What is EUS?

Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) allows your doctor to examine your esophageal and stomach linings as well as the walls of your upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. The upper tract consists of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum; the lower tract includes your colon and rectum. EUS is also used to study other organs that are near the gastrointestinal tract, including the lungs, liver, gall bladder and pancreas.

Endoscopists are highly trained specialists who welcome your questions regarding their credentials, training and experience. Your endoscopist will use a thin, flexible tube called an endoscope that has a built-in miniature ultrasound probe. Your doctor will pass the endoscope through your mouth or anus to the area to be examined. Your doctor then will use the ultrasound to use sound waves to create visual images of the digestive tract.

Why is EUS done?

EUS provides your doctor with more information than other imaging tests by providing detailed images of your digestive tract. Your doctor can use EUS to diagnose certain conditions that may cause abdominal pain or abnormal weight loss.

EUS is also used to evaluate known abnormalities, including lumps or lesions, which were detected at a prior endoscopy or were seen on x-ray tests, such as a computed tomography (CT) scan. EUS provides a detailed image of the lump or lesion, which can help your doctor determine its origin and help treatment decisions. EUS can be used to diagnose diseases of the pancreas, bile duct and gallbladder when other tests are inconclusive or conflicting.

Why is EUS used for patients with cancer?

EUS helps your doctor determine the extent of spread of certain cancers of the digestive and respiratory systems. EUS allows your doctor to accurately assess the cancer’s depth and whether it has spread to adjacent lymph glands or nearby vital structures, such as major blood vessels. In some patients, EUS can be used to obtain a needle biopsy of a lump or lesion to help your doctor determine the proper treatment.

When Is Endoscopic Ultrasound Used?

Evaluate stages of cancer.
Evaluate chronic pancreatitis or other disorders of the pancreas.
Study abnormalities or tumors in organs, including the gallbladder and liver.
Study the muscles of the lower rectum and anal canal to determine reasons for fecal incontinence.
Study nodules (bumps) in the intestinal wall.


For endoscopy, after local anesthesia of the throat, we also use a special short-acting sedatives, the goal is for the patient to have a good time.


High-frequency electrosurgical unit (Argon-plasma coagulation module).
Advantages of the APC method:
• efficient coagulation at substantially smaller tissue depth than
during traditional electrocoagulation. Coagulation necrosis
penetrates in tissue not more than few tenths of millimeter in depth;
this enables to use this method for large surfaces processing at
diffuse bleeding (including bleeding out of parenchymatous
• contactless application that prevents scab forming on the electrode
and its abruption from the tissues lying underneath;
• possible choice between point application and application on vast

This image shows endoscopic biopsy

During endoscopy, your doctor uses a thin, flexible tube with a light on the end to see structures inside your body. Special tools are passed through the tube to take a small sample of tissue to be analyzed.

What type of endoscopic biopsy you undergo depends on where the suspicious area is located. Tubes used in an endoscopic biopsy can be inserted through your mouth, rectum, urinary tract or a small incision in your skin. Examples of endoscopic biopsy procedures include cytoscopy to collect tissue from the inside of your bladder, bronchoscopy to get tissue from inside your lung and colonoscopy to collect tissue from inside your colon.

Depending on the type of endoscopic biopsy you undergo, you may receive a sedative or anesthetic before the procedure.